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ARC-iJAC Activities

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ARCとインドネシア科学研究所地域研究センターが覚書を締結
新型コロナウイルスの感染拡大に伴い、サインはリモートで行われました

アート・リサーチセンター(以下、ARC)は、インドネシア科学研究所地域研究センター(P2W-LIPI)との間で改めて協定を結びました。(※今秋、政府機関の改変によりLIPIの名称は変更される予定)

このあらたなMOUは、2017年にLIPIと締結した覚書に基づき、4年間にわたる両機関の交流における成功と更なる友好関係を目指し、継続することを目的としたものです。
このMOUは、インドネシアのボロブドゥール寺院、リヤンガン遺跡、プンジュルハルジョ遺跡の研究及びアーカイブ・プロジェクトなど、デジタル・ヒューマニティーズの共同研究プロジェクトを実施するための枠組みとなります。
さらに、シンポジウム、セミナー、会議の共同開催や、共同プログラム/プロジェクトに関わる科学的資料や関連データの交換を支援しています。


世界遺産ボロブドゥール寺院のデジタルアーカイブ化

1_borobudur_07.jpeg ARCでは、プロジェクトリーダーである田中覚教授(情報理工学部)が中心となって、ユネスコの世界遺産に登録されているボロブドゥール寺院を最新の3次元計測技術で計測し、得られたビッグデータを用いて3次元透視可視化するアーカイブ・プロジェクトを進めています。
「この広大な遺跡の3Dスキャンを行ったのは、海外の科学者チームとしては初めてであり、ARCにとって重要な国際共同研究となりました」と田中教授は語る。

今後は、高精細4次元可視化コンテンツの開発のほか、アジアの歴史建造物をデジタル・アーカイブ化し、VR空間上にデジタルミュージアムを公開することを目的としています。

大規模文化遺産の可視化について、田中覚教授に聞く 記事はこちら

10月17日(日) アート・リサーチセンター 副センター長の赤間亮教授がデジタルアーカイブ化に協力している「松竹大谷図書館」のクラウドファンディングが東京新聞に掲載されました。

損傷の激しい所蔵資料をデジタル化し、ネットで公開することを目的としたクラウドファンディング(CF)を始めて10年目を迎えたことが紹介されています。

今のチラシやポスターにあたる、演劇界の「芝居番付」など、約6000枚にもおよぶ資料が閲覧できるようになったことや、CFサイト「READYFOR」の寄付では、半数近くがリピーターが占め、CFを通して図書館を知る若い利用者が増えたことなどが紹介されています。

yano_keiji_profile.jpgThe Art Research Center (ARC), Ritsumeikan University, is delighted to announce the release of the 'Surname Map'--a research project led by Professor Keiji Yano (College of Letters), Deputy Director of the ARC.

Project Background

Until the end of the Edo period, Japanese surnames had exclusively been granted to the emperor, nobility, and samurais. Following the Meiji Restoration and the enactment of the family registration law in the early Meiji period, farmers and other commoners also began to adopt surnames.

With more than 100,000 different surnames, Japan is not only characterized by great diversity in surnames but also regional variations in their distribution.

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Based on big data of about 40 million surnames from Japanese telephone directories and large-scale residential maps, the Surname Map visualizes the contemporary spatial distribution of surnames across all prefectures in Japan.

This research began in 2005 when Professor Yano, then a visiting researcher at University College London (UCL), joined Professor Paul Longley's research project on surnames around the world at the Department of Geography, UCL.

Professor Longley had mapped surnames from the UK's 1881 Census of Individual Voters and the 1998 Electoral Roll to analyze the movement of surnames over more than a hundred years.

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In the UK, a country with an ethnically diverse population, he measured ethnic residential segregation by inferring ethnic origins from surnames.

For the project of Professor Longley to create a world map of surnames, Professor Yano provided the Japanese surnames.

Features of the Surname Map

The interactive map provides users with valuable insights into the geographic distribution of their individual surnames in a simple and illustrative manner.

Firstly, the map displays the frequency of a surname in absolute numbers (人数) and ranking according to prefectures.

Secondly, the map shows the relative degree of accumulation, i.e., how evenly a surname is distributed throughout the country, with the specialization coefficient (特化係数).

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An option is available to display the absolute numbers and specialization coefficient on two maps side by side.

Furthermore, the distribution trends of two surnames can be compared side by side.

Explore Regional Variations

The map enables users to explore and identify the geographic concentration and regional clusters of surnames.

For instance, the map reveals that some surnames are particularly unique to a region, such as 'Ganaha' (我那覇) in Okinawa.

img-snap02481_m.png

In the case of Okinawa, the heavy concentration of 'Ganaha' (我那覇) has been considered a result of the relative isolation of the Ryukyu Islands that has led to minimal surname exchange with mainland Japan, whereas there are different reasons for other localities, such as government policy implications on the settlement of Hokkaido.

Current & Future Research Endeavors

Professor Yano's Surname Map builds on the growing interest in the regional analysis of surnames in Japan and other parts of the world.

As in the UK, there exists no exhaustive historical surname data for the whole country in Japan. For Kyoto, however, a database has been created as part of the Virtual Kyoto Project--another project led by Professor Yano. He is working on establishing links within this data that comprise name data from land registry maps from the end of the Meiji period (1868-1912), telephone directories, and the names of people in commerce and industry during the Taisho period (1912-1926).

Other projects include an investigation in the hometowns of the Tonden soldiers (屯田兵) and migration flows of their descendants, identifying the hometowns of Nikkei (日系人) who emigrated from Japan, as well as a study of population movements in local areas of Japan over the past fifteen years, linking them to the census data at town and village levels.

Finally, Professor Yano is pursuing the possibility of digital humanities research on surnames, including the relationship between surnames and the name of places.

<Access the Surname Map>

<Access the UK project 'Named by PublicProfiler' of University College London (UCL)>

The Surname Map has been created by Ritsumeikan University in cooperation with Acton Winds Co., Ltd.

Further reading:

1. Cheshire, J.A., Longley, P.A., Yano, K. and Nakaya, T. (2014), Japanese surname regions. Pap Reg Sci, 93: 539-555. https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12002

2. Longley, P.A., Singleton, A. D., Yano, K. & Nakaya. T. (2010), Lost in Translation: Cross-Cultural Experiences in Teaching Geo-Genealogy. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 34:1, 21-38. DOI: 10.1080/03098260902982476

3. Yano, K. (2007), GIS based Japanese family name maps and their potential in Geographic Information Science. Jinmoncom 2007, 47-54. (in Japanese with English abstract): http://id.nii.ac.jp/1001/00100574/

Project Overview:
At the center of this project, which involved Bachelor and Master students of Japanology at Goethe University Frankfurt, was the On Edo ezu (御江戸絵図) from the ARC database.
Drawing on maps, guidebooks, and colored woodblock prints, this project attempted to correlate various sources of both geographical and visual experience and knowledge to hypothetically reconstruct how they might have shaped the late Edo period consumer's consciousness based on the materials accessible to them.
Click here to access the project website.

MKfotosw.jpgProfessor Kinski, thank you very much for your time. As the leader of the FY2020 ARC-iJAC project 'Edo Period Map goes Digital - The On Edo ezu as an Interactive Resource', could you tell us about your motivation to start this project?

Prof. Kinski: I began to develop a strong interest in Digital Humanities (DH) in 2012 when I saw a presentation by Bettina Gramlich-Oka--a colleague at Sophia University--about creating an interactive biographic database as part of her interest in social network analysis.

Striving to incorporate text mining, topic modeling, or semantic network analysis in my approach to Edo period intellectual history, I have been making efforts to raise the interest amongst students in the approaches towards Japanese sources derived from DH.

Frankfurt University owns a small collection of printed books covering the period between 1650 and 1850, our 'Edo bunko' which we use for exercises in the classroom to decipher and transcribe larger quantities of text.

A talented student of mine, Koray Birenheide, created a program called 'DemiScript' that allows us to work with source material--whether premodern, modern, textual or visual--and to present the results of our transcription efforts. A far more advanced tool than expected, I was convinced it could serve as a platform for a larger, more ambitious classroom project.

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The ARC-iJAC provided a timely opportunity to put our plan into action by drawing on the materials in the ARC databases and combining the first-hand exploration of primary sources with concerns from urban infrastructure history and art history.

So, the purpose of your project was largely educational?

Prof. Kinski: Yes, our project was not devised as a research project as such. Its paramount aim was to bring students into contact with primary source materials.

Most project participants neither had training in 'classical' Japanese, such as kobun classes (古文), nor Edo period Japanese or had encountered Edo period script and what often is called 'hentaigana'.

Furthermore, I wanted to provide students with an outline of Edo period urbanity, urban infrastructure, the representation of geography in the context of a 2D map, and the solutions chosen by the editors for this purpose.

A secondary effect of this project was the in-depth study of the On Edo ezu in a language other than Japanese and the correlation between the map and Hiroshige's ukiyo-e prints--two media available in the Tenpō period to find spatial and temporal orientation.

The students identified and linked Hiroshige's choice in scenic spots and famous places to their counterpart sites on the map. This way, we could verify the exactitude of both the map and the prints and get an idea of what kind of materials were available for Edo period inhabitants and travelers to find their way around.

map5.jpg

How do you feel about the execution of the project, and what kind of feedback did you get from your students?

Prof. Kinski: At first, I naively thought that integrating questions and methods derived from DH would meet with a positive echo amongst students. However, despite the ubiquitous talk about living in the digital age, most of them did not immediately share my enthusiasm for DH in studying Edo Japan.

The On Edo ezu project served to overcome these reservations towards using computer-based approaches to explore Edo Japan and strengthen their intrinsic motivation to learn about Japan's past rather than contemporary Japan.

And indeed, this project turned out to provide fun, insight, and the feeling of exploration and discovery for most of my students. Organized in small groups working on a well-defined target independently, they have expressed in their end-term evaluation that this was a new and satisfying experience learning about premodern Japan.

I hope that the project has also encouraged them to find an individual creative niche for themselves and their study interests in the future.

map4.jpg

How did you connect with the ARC-ijAC?

Prof. Kinski: My original interests lie in the Edo period intellectual and cultural history. Although my connection to Ritsumeikan University goes back to 1990, I only became fully aware of the ARC when I got invited by Andrew Gerstle (SOAS) to join his ARC-iJAC project Cultural Salons and Visual Arts in Kyoto and Osaka, 1750--1900.

This project encompassed the idea of exploring 'networks', and I was investigating Kaiho Seiryô (1755-1817) and his social network as part of this.

The project was the starting shot for what I consider a major discovery for me. Besides providing me the opportunity to explore Seiryô as a bunjin (文人) who was active in salons in Kyoto around 1810 and made the acquaintance of other bunjin painters, it also gave me a chance to see some of the works of Seiryô in private collections.

I am grateful to Ryo Akama, Andrew Gerstle as well as the ARC resources that have allowed me to pursue my interest in Seiryô as a bunjin and to set his works and endeavors in perspective.

Concluding this interview, is there anything else you would like to comment on?

Prof. Kinski: I hope that such research endeavors as pursued by the ARC and ARC-iJAC can continue in the future without the worry of financial resources. Bringing people together in international, interdisciplinary projects like this is of utmost importance.

Click here to access the project website.

[イベント情報]
2021年8月17日(火)

相撲デジタル研究所

 この度、相撲番付や相撲古文献の宝庫である小島貞二コレクションをオンラインデータベースで公開に併せて、「相撲デジタル研究所」をARCのバーチャルインスティチュートで公開しました。

 立命館大学アートリサーチセンター(ARC)は著名な相撲史研究家であった故小島貞二氏が蒐集した相撲史関連の資料のデジタルアーカイブ化に取り組んできました。6月には、コレクションの公開を開始しました。それに併せて、この度、「相撲デジタル研究所」と称して相撲史にかかわる研究成果を公開していくことになりました。
 小島貞二コレクションは江戸時代の中期、寛保2年(1742)から平成18年(2006)までの264年間の相撲番付を中心とした紙の資料約1000枚と相撲関連古資料数十冊から成っています。これらのデジタル画像いつでも参照することができます。

 相撲デジタル研究所では、デジタル化された資料の閲覧だけでなく、オンライン展示を見ることが出来ます。江戸時代の事件を編年体で集めた『武江年表』から相撲関係の記事をピックアップして、小島貞二コレクションからその事件に関連する相撲番付を、浮世絵データーベースから浮世絵、古典籍データーベースから資料をそれぞれ取り出しリンクして江戸時代の勧進相撲を多面的に浮かび上がらせる、という試みです。このオンライン展示によって多くの方が現在とは全く違う勧進相撲の世界に関心を持っていただければ、と思います。

 ここでは、小島コレクションだけでなく、ARCバーチャルインスティチュートの「ライデン国立民族学博物館日本コレクション」から閲覧できる「相撲絵コレクション」とリンクを貼り、世界でも珍しい相撲浮世絵を簡単な解説と共に楽しんでいただけるようになりました。出版された同時期にオランダに渡った浮世絵は保存が良いため大変美しく、出版された当時の色合いを残しています。是非ご覧ください。

 「相撲デジタル研究所」は、これからも江戸勧進相撲から近代の相撲まで幅広く図像データ及び文献資料を収集し、デジタルアーカイブして広く公開していくことにしています。なかなか目に触れることが少ない相撲資料を公開することで相撲に関心を持ってくれる人を増やしていきたいと考えています。(担当:安宅望)

大阪府立中之島図書館所蔵、「朝日新聞」文庫の芝居番付

 大阪府立中之島図書館に所蔵される「朝日新聞」文庫の芝居番付がアート・リサーチセンター(以下、ARC)の番付DBから画像閲覧できるようになりました。
江戸時代以降の歌舞伎や浄瑠璃を中心とする芝居興行時に出されるチラシやポスター、プログラム類で、当時の役者や配役名、芝居の内容をきめ細かく確認することができます。

 本資料は、昭和45年(1970)3月に大阪府立図書館から発行された『「朝日新聞」文庫目録』に詳細な目録が掲載されていたものですが、ARCが中之島図書館の許可を得て、資料のデジタル化から目録データの再考証までを行ない、ARCの番付データベースシステムからオンラインで画像閲覧できるようになりました。

 ARCでは、2017年度までに、中之島図書館の未目録化資料約700点をオンライン閲覧できるようになっていましたが、今回、1443点の番付が追加され、これで合計2,129件が一般公開されたことになります。
 これらは、大阪府立中之島図書館のHPの「各種目録・データベース」のデータベース一覧からアクセスできると同時に、ARCの「番付ポータルデータベース」で、所蔵機関「大阪府立中之島図書館」を選ぶことで閲覧できます。番付ポータルデータベースには、他機関所蔵の番付も登載されており、中之島図書館に欠けているものを補ったり、比較しながら閲覧できます。
 なお、昭和43年(1968)10月発行の『大阪府立図書館蔵 芝居番付目録』には、これ以外の番付が約2,500点掲載されており、これらについても来年度から第3弾のプロジェクトとして進める予定です。3年後には、ほぼ4,600点に達する大規模な芝居番付データベースを完成させたいと考えています。

ARC Daysは、立命館大学アート・リサーチセンターの教員と、日本文化資源デジタル・アーカイブ国際共同研究拠点(ARC-iJAC)に採択された国際共同研究者が、デジタル・ヒューマニティーズ(DH)型の研究プロジェクトを発表する年に一度のイベントです。
新型コロナ感染症拡大防止の為、オンライン(Zoom)で行われ、YouTubeでもライブ配信されました。

主催:立命館大学アート・リサーチセンター、文部科学省 国際共同利用・共同研究拠点「日本文化資源デジタル・アーカイブ国際共同研究拠点」(ARC-iJAC)、立命館大学研究拠点形成支援プログラム

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Daan  Kok-copy.jpgDr. Kok, thank you very much for your time today. As Curator East Asia, you have been at the forefront of this joint research project with the ARC to digitize the extensive Japanese art collection of Museum Volkenkunde, part of the National Museum of World Cultures.

What sparked your interest in Japanese art and culture?

Dr. Kok: In high school, I once received a book about Japanese design. It raised my interest to apply at a design academy. Not admitted on my first attempt, I began to study Japanese and enjoyed it so much that I never stopped.

During my studies at Leiden University, I became particularly fond of the kyōka surimono of the 1820s.

Lei-1353-446 -copy.jpg

How do you feel about the overall collaboration with the ARC?

Dr. Kok: I am very thankful for our collaboration. The first contact between our museum and the ARC was already established more than ten years ago. During Professor Akama's visits, we would conduct photography together using the 'portable travel kit' he developed to digitize art collections abroad.

The execution of our joint project has never been stagnant, but you can see a continuous improvement year after year. It has also been a valuable learning experience for me to see the mechanisms Professor Akama uses to increase the quality of digitizing artworks.

Lei-1230-74 - copy.jpg

What is the significance of constructing and releasing this database in the ARC Virtual Institute?

Dr. Kok: We need to ensure comprehensive access for researchers to our collection.

Now that we have constructed and interlinked the ARC database with our museum database, the availability of our collection of printed materials to a Japanese-speaking audience is of great significance.

Furthermore, we appreciate the ARC's digital infrastructure for not only searching but also editing the database. The interactivity of the ARC database allows Japanese-speaking researchers to contribute to the database, paving the way for future research.

While our museum database is a more general database for a wide range of objects, the ARC database has a high level of specialization to cater to the specific needs of research in Japanese art and culture, such as ukiyo-e prints and early Japanese books.

Could you tell us a little more about the Japanese collection at Museum Volkenkunde?

Lei-1-4292-02_006 copy.jpg

Dr. Kok: The core of the museum's Japanese collection is made up of the collections of Philipp Franz von Siebold, Jan Cock Blomhoff and J.G.F. van Overmeer Fischer.

They were the main collectors in the 1820s--a period of Japan's sakoku (closed country) policy. After they purchased the artworks during their court journeys to the shōgun in Edo, the items came to the Netherlands almost in a straight line and never circulated among other collectors.

Since we know when they made these court journeys to Edo, we have obtained a good overview of what was available during that period and what was of interest to the collectors. The time of purchase also allows us to calculate how much or how little time there was between a kabuki play and the kabuki poster's availability on the market, for instance.

Furthermore, the existence of multiple copies of the same prints makes them suitable for comparative research.

Is there anything that fascinates you about this collection in particular?

Dr. Kok: It is particularly noteworthy that some of the prints are in a quite unique condition. Their colors convey the impression as if they were made just yesterday. Hence, these prints serve as a valuable reference of how prints may have looked originally.

Lei-0001-4470-27.jpg

However, due to their exceptional quality, the museum decided that a limited number would not be permitted to go on loan. Therefore, it is even more important they are available to the broad public in digital form through our database.

Could you tell us about your plans or future project goals?

Dr. Kok: I hope to continue to work with the ARC on digitization projects.

While Volkenkunde has the largest Japanese collection, there are interesting Japanese objects at other museums in our organization, mainly the Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam) and Wereldmuseum (Rotterdam), which the ARC has not digitized yet.

Since these Japan collections are not well-known, compared to that of Museum Volkenkunde, it is all the more important that they become available to a Japanese-speaking audience as well. So, we should strive to ensure that links are well established.

Furthermore, with the advance of technology, AI image recognition may provide opportunities to recognize drawings and sketches and match them to certain prints and book illustrations published by Kuniyoshi, Kyōsai, or Hokusai. I also hope to work together with the ARC on this area in the future.

→ Access the database of the Japan Collection at Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden

立命館大学アート・リサーチセンター(以下、ARC)と文学部は、「祇園祭デジタルミュージアム2021 -バーチャルで楽しむ祇園祭-」を公開しました。

祇園祭デジタルミュージアム2021 -バーチャルで楽しむ祇園祭-

このサイトは、昨年公開した「祇園祭デジタル・ミュージアム2020-祇園祭の過去・現在・未来-」をリニューアルし、装い新たに公開したものとなります。

2021年の祇園祭は、2020年同様に、新型コロナウィルス感染症拡大の影響を大きく受け、「山鉾巡行」をはじめとする多くの関連イベントが中止となりました。
そこで、祇園祭の魅力や歴史をオンラインで体験できるサイトとして「祇園祭デジタル・ミュージアム2021」を公開しました。

下記の新しいコンテンツも追加され、更に皆様に楽しんで頂けるようになっています。

1. ArcGIS Onlineによるバーチャル京都の2D・3Dマップ
2. 懸装品の高精細画像、祇園囃子、バーチャル巡行
3. 『バーチャル歴史京都AR(iOS・Android)』((株)キャドセンター・ARC共同作成)

バーチャルに再現された船鉾と新町通の町並み
バーチャルに再現された船鉾と新町通の町並み
山鉾の所在地や巡行ルートを示した地図
山鉾の所在地や巡行ルートを示した地図

船鉾保存会所蔵32㎜フィルム
船鉾保存会所蔵32㎜フィルム
長江家住宅バーチャルツアーのイメージ
長江家住宅バーチャルツアーのイメージ

NHK京都撮影の様子 テレビ放送
NHK京都「ニュース630京いちにち」内コーナー「京のええとこ連れてって」で「おうちで楽しむ祇園祭」として、矢野桂司教授(ARC副センター長)の「祇園祭デジタル・ミュージアム2021」が放送されます。
※放送された映像は、翌週からNHK京都のHPでも公開されます。
日時:2021年7月16日(金)18:30~19:00

ARCは、芸術、芸能、技術、技能を中心とした有形・無形の文化芸術資源を歴史的、社会的観点から研究・分析し、記録・整理・保存・発信することを目的としています。

祇園祭などの伝統行事をデジタル・アーカイブ化し、広く一般の皆さまに公開することで、私たち人類が持つ文化を後世に伝達することを目指しています。

imageedit_6_5663237401.jpgBackground

In anticipation of the return of the Takayama float to the Gion Festival in 2022, a symposium was held by Asahi Shimbun, co-organized by the Art Research Center (ARC), Ritsumeikan University, on June 19, 2021.

The Takayama float boasts a long history of participating in the Yamahoko Junko parade that dates back to the 15th century. However, the float has been absent from the festival since 1826, having suffered from heavy damages caused by natural disasters.

As a result of the continued dedication and determination of the Takayama Preservation Association to revive the Takayama float, the long-cherished wish of the townspeople for the float to return to the Yamahoko Junko after nearly 200 years will finally come true.

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The Symposium

At the beginning of the symposium, Mr. Junji Yamada, Head of the Takayama Preservation Association, gave an overview of the reconstruction progress of the float and expressed his joy that it is due to be completed four years earlier than expected.

Then, Prof. Keiji Yano, Deputy Director of the ARC, introduced the center's various activities concerning the digital archiving of the Gion Festival and the Takayama float (→ Gion Festival Digital Museum 2020 and 2021).

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He presented CG animation of the rebuilt Takayama float, 2D and 3D maps of festival routes, old videos and photographs from the early Showa era, and 3D see-through visualization models of the festival floats, amongst others.

"As we did last year, the Art Research Center will be making its research results available to the public again from July this year through the Gion Festival Digital Museum 2021, so please look forward to it," expressed Prof. Yano.

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Other distinguished guest speakers included Prof. Shoichi Inoue, Director of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies; Mr. Takashi Minamoto, film director and screenwriter; and Ms. Rieko Morita, Nihonga painter and Affiliate Professor at the Kyoto City University of Arts, with each of them sharing stories about his/her connection with the Gion Festival and the Takayama float.

Concluding the symposium, the hayashikata (Gion Festival musicians) of the Takayama Preservation Association performed ohayashi specific to the float.

Anticipation

"Ever since I was a kid, I have seen the festival floats passing by, accompanied by the creaking of wheels while I stood on the roadside listening to the ohayashi," Mr. Yamada reminisced. "None of us has ever experienced playing the ohayashi on the Takayama float during the festival, so we are all more than excited."

*A full video of the event is available online from July 1 - August 31, 2021 (in Japanese). To watch the video, please register via the following link: https://ciy.digital.asahi.com/ciy/11004163.

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