E07 Kumadori and Oshiguma

"Hachidaime Ichikawa Danjyuro Mimasu Kagekiyo Oshigami"
Actor: Ichikawa Danjyuro the eighth 隈取押紙1枚
Ritsumeikan Art Research Center (arcHS03-0007-2_01)

Oshiguma (a print of Kuma) was made for sponsors' souvenir in answer to their demands. To print Kuma which is a characteristic makeup for Kabuki stage, a piece of paper or cloth was pressed against an actor's makeup when an actor get back to the back stage after the stage. Since different characters have different type of Kuma and all features of the actor's face were printed on it, Oshiguma pleased Kabuki fans intensely and they displayed it in their house.
According to the inscription, the Oshiguma displayed here was printed from Ichikawa Danjyuro the eighth's (1823-1854) makeup when he played the warrior hero Kagekiyo (Akushichibei Kagekiyo). Depending on performance records, what this inscription meant was probably the program titled "Kabuki Jyu-hachi ban no uchi Kagekiyo" at Kawarazaki-za theatre in August 1849(Kaei 2). If this judgement is right, this Oshiguma is the oldest one known to exist.
This item was originally attached on a scrap book "Nihon Ichikawa Misuji no Makimono" possessed by Kanaya Sennosuke who had a deep insight of theatrical affairs and enjoyed a friendship of Ichikawa Danjyuro the eighth. Therefore, it is reliable material. Sennosuke used "Oshigami" (lit. pressing paper) which is never seen in the other as a term for Oshiguma. This fact indicates that Oshiguma had not become established as a term.
Taking a close look at this picture, nose and rips are closer than real. This is because it was printed in two separate times, upper part of face and bottom.
The makeup for Akushichibei Kagekiyo is called "Hanguma" (lit. half-Kuma) or "Kagekiyo no Kuma" (lit. Kuma for Kagekiyo) which is colored by scarlet on the upper and blue pigment on the bottom expressing shades of cheek bones and beer. It was to represent Kagekiyo's haggard face which is a result of being prison for a long time and composure as a father of a daughter.
Comparing to Kuma which was improved by Ichikawa Danjyuro the fourth in "Ichikawake Hiden Kumatori Zukan" (placed above), this Oshiguma seemes to be further improved. (,)